- Using a household energy technology to promote small scale enterprises in rural communities in Nigeria - The egaga stove experience
- Authors (non HEDON members)
- Joe Obueh
- Nigeria, today, is reputed to be the tenth largest country in the world. Demographic data put 80% of the population as living in the rural communities, leaving the remaining 20% in the few urban centres that are already bursting at the margins.
Originally, Nigeria could boast seven distinct ecological zones; in the south, distinct regions of mangrove forest, fresh water marshland, mountain vegetation and rainforest, and moving into savanna regions comprising mainly grassland in the northern fringe. Today, the advancing desert and deforestation is continually pushing the limits of the derived savanna- the interface between the arid land and the forest belt- further into the rainforest region.
Forests and woodlands are estimated at 9.6 million hectares, representing 16% of the total land cover. This supplies two-thirds of the total energy need of Nigeria’s household energy sector put at an equivalent of 263kg of coal per annum. The energy requirement is predominantly met by fuelwood, which supplies 80% of the total demand. The remainder is met by: kerosene 10%; LPG 4%; charcoal 3%; and other biomass 3%.
However, increased dependence on fuelwood, coupled with other unsustainable activities such as commercial logging, forest fires, massive urbanization, population pressure and desertification cumulatively created an annul deforestation of 450,000 hectares in the 1980s. Today, the country’s forest reserves are put at only four times the annual consumption of fuelwood.
To reverse this trend, the Centre for Household Energy and the Environment embarked on a twoyear study into household energy situation in Nigeria with key emphasis on environment, health, gender and poverty. The two communities selected were; Oghara – a typical rural community, and Benin – a peri-urban community. Both are located in the rain forest ecological zone in the southwest Nigeria.
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- Title in French
- L’utilisation de technologies pour l’énergie domestique afin de promouvoir les petites entreprises dans des communautés rurales du Nigéria : l’expérience du foyer égaga
- Abstract in French
- La déforestation rampante au Nigéria a conduit au développement du foyer ‘ égaga ‘ qui permet de conserver jusqu’à 60 % de la chaleur tout en étant approprié aux besoins des populations. Au total, 3274 foyers améliores égaga ont été diffusés. Une autre innovation est la production de briquettes à partir de résidus de charbon de bois permettant des économies d’énergie pouvant atteindre 40 %. Ces deux technologies tendent à favoriser le développement de nouvelles entreprises. Un programme à l’échelle nationale pourrait être lancé.
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- 010 Stoves
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- 012 Cooking
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- A practitioner's journal on household energy, stoves and poverty reduction.
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