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PISCES E-conference


Introduction to presentation: "The study of markets within economic sociology as a conceptual framework, and using market mapping as a tool for PhD research" by Gill Davies

Dear all

I’m a 1st year PhD student at the Centre of African Studies within the University of Edinburgh. My academic research focuses on market-driven approaches used by development intermediaries to support the growth of rural markets for small-scale renewable energy technologies (RETs). I have a background in low carbon consultancy, particularly climate change strategy and renewable energy policy.

In this presentation I present some of the findings of my initial literature review, which examines the study of markets within economic sociology as a conceptual framework, and links it to applied ethnography and market mapping as a research tool. I also outline my proposed research design, which will hopefully examine two renewable energy market-support projects run by NGOs in Africa. The aim is to investigate the social structure within the emerging market itself and analyse the nature of the relationships between the different markets actors and also with the development intermediaries and other external actors or conditions which impact the market.

I’ve tried to make the presentation fairly self-explanatory so I will keep this introduction brief, but in terms of themes to explore I’d like to draw your attention to the further ideas outlined on slide 9. I’m also very interested to hear any comments or questions related to any aspect of the presentation or my research.

Kind regards,

Gill Davies
g.l.davies at sms.ed.ac.uk

Sources / References

Callon, M. (1998) Introduction: the embeddedness of economic markets in economics. In: Callon, M. (ed.) The Laws of the Markets. Oxford: Blackwell.

Granovetter, M. (1985) “Economic Action and Social Structure: The Problem of Embeddedness” In American Journal of Sociology, 91, 30.

Granovetter, M. (1982) “The Strength of Weak Ties” In Marsden, P. V. & Lin, N. (eds.) Social Structures and Network Analysis. Sage

IIED (2005) The Four Rs

Latour, B. (2005) Reassembling the social : an introduction to actor-network-theory, Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Polanyi, K. (1957) The great transformation, Boston, Beacon Press.

Practical Action (2005) Mapping the Market: A framework for rural enterprise development policy and practice

Practical Action Consulting (2009) Small-Scale Bioenergy Initiatives: Brief description and preliminary lessons on livelihood impacts from case studies in Asia, Latin America and Africa. Prepared for PISCES and FAO by Practical Action Consulting

White, J.B. (1990) Justice as Translation: An Essay in Cultural and Legal Criticism, Chicago, The University of Chicago.
A message from Heitham:

Dear Gillian,

What are the impacts of religious values on economic activities?
Hi Gillian,

Following Heithams question, I found the question you raised regarding what unforeseen cultures is the market embedded in? very interesting. I guess we naturally go to a producer or tradesman that we feel confident will understand what we want, someone that understands our culture. So for someone in the west to make a recommendation to someone in a completely different culture then they are unlikely to take it up. If this a barrier to market infiltration does how we can get round this? Are there studies on cultural behaviour that give examples of how such barriers can be overcome?
Hi Gillian
I also want to ask you if you can explain what are the Market-Driven Approaches? and how it engage with developing lacal markets?
Cameroon
Dear Gillian,

Thank you very much for the presentation!
I would also like to know the criteria that you used to select Malawi and Senegal/Mali?
Which information has guided to make the choice or it is a constraint ?
Many thanks for your questions and comments.

In regards to religion and economic activity, I've been looking at =20
Weber's work that attempts to link the historic rise of capitalism or =20
otherwise in societies with the religions that underpin their =20
respective cultures. His work is circa 1900 so the actual case studies =20
are less relevant to modern society, but I think the ideas he draws =20
out can still have relevance.

In terms of more recent studies on cultural behaviour and market =20
infiltration, Fligstein (1996) has done some interesting analysis on =20
the Japanese keiretsu. These are closely knit groups of companies in =20
different industries but that share ownership ties, generally =20
originating from a family ownership history and leading to well =20
established interdependent relationships. It creates a very stable =20
market structure that offers many advantages to the companies involved =20
but makes entry into the market by new competitors very difficult.

Cultural issues can be even more important in countries with limited =20
or inadequate formal institutions to support markets (e.g. lack of =20
effective legal frameworks for property rights), where informal social =20
institutions may take on the role instead. In that case, understanding =20
the socio-cultural context will be even more important for those =20
looking to enter the market. I hope to examine this further over the =20
course of my fieldwork next year and look at some examples in practice.

As for overcoming the barriers, I haven't found any specific studies =20
as yet but again the research is ongoing. There may be some useful =20
lessons to learn from the marketing sector, where understanding =20
cultural context is essential. An amusing example is cited by =20
Carruthers and Babb (2000) regarding General Motors=92 Chevy Nova. This =20
was a very popular car in the US, yet it would not sell in the Latin =20
American market for the simple reason that =93no va=94 in Spanish =20
translates as =93it doesn=92t go=94! Cultural context includes elements as =
=20
simple as linguistics, but understanding is definitely crucial.

Perhaps the other presenters may have some ideas in response to your =20
point on overcoming cultural barriers to market infiltration, based on =20
their practical experiences?

References

Carruthers, B. G. & Babb, S. L. (2000) Economy/society: markets, =20
meanings, and social structure. California: Thousand Oaks.

Fligstein, N. (1996) Markets as Politics: A Political-Cultural =20
Approach to Market Institutions. In American Sociological Review, 61, =20
656-673.



Quoting hedon at hedon.info:

>
> Hi Gillian,
>
> Following Heithams question, I found the question you raised =20
> regarding what unforeseen cultures is the market embedded in? very =20
> interesting. I guess we naturally go to a producer or tradesman that =20
> we feel confident will understand what we want, someone that =20
> understands our culture. So for someone in the west to make a =20
> recommendation to someone in a completely different culture then =20
> they are unlikely to take it up. If this a barrier to market =20
> infiltration does how we can get round this? Are there studies on =20
> cultural behaviour that give examples of how such barriers can be =20
> overcome?
>
> --
> HEDON PISCES E-conference - PISCES Market Mapping E-confernce
> Unsubscribe www.hedon.info/Groups | Visit the forum online =20
> http://www.hedon.info/forum17
>
>
>



--=20
The University of Edinburgh is a charitable body, registered in
Scotland, with registration number SC005336.



A Message from Elizabeth Cecelski
I have been through the presentations posted to date. I like the use of the different media. (Though the figure in first presentation is not legible even when enlarged.)

One question that arises immediately for me, being from ENERGIA, is how to integrate a gender perspective in PMM? It would seem easy but so far I haven't seen any attempt at gender differentiation. Yotam Ariel did give some good examples of benefits with women as well as men, but in the video all the speakers, technicians etc are men.

I have just come back from Dakar helping PERACOD (GoS-GIZ project building sustainable markets in SHS and improved stoves) to develop a Gender Action Plan. One of the actions included in the GAP is to use gender-differentiated approaches in promotion, product design and finance. Gender-specific targets for training, enterprises and revenues, and consumer benefits are also included.

These approaches would seem applicable to PMM too.

best,

Elizabeth Cecelski
Technical Adviser
ENERGIA International Network on Gender & Sustainable Energy
www.energia.org
A response from Gillian Davies

Many thanks for your questions and comments.

In regards to religion and economic activity, I've been looking at Weber's work that attempts to link the historic rise of capitalism or otherwise in societies with the religions that underpin their respective cultures. His work is circa 1900 so the actual case studies are less relevant to modern society, but I think the ideas he draws out can still have relevance.

In terms of more recent studies on cultural behaviour and market infiltration, Fligstein (1996) has done some interesting analysis on the Japanese keiretsu. These are closely knit groups of companies in different industries but that share ownership ties, generally originating from a family ownership history and leading to well established interdependent relationships. It creates a very stable market structure that offers many advantages to the companies involved but makes entry into the market by new competitors very difficult.

Cultural issues can be even more important in countries with limited or inadequate formal institutions to support markets (e.g. lack of effective legal frameworks for property rights), where informal social institutions may take on the role instead. In that case, understanding the socio-cultural context will be even more important for those looking to enter the market. I hope to examine this further over the course of my fieldwork next year and look at some examples in practice.

As for overcoming the barriers, I haven't found any specific studies as yet but again the research is ongoing. There may be some useful lessons to learn from the marketing sector, where understanding cultural context is essential. An amusing example is cited by Carruthers and Babb (2000) regarding General Motors’ Chevy Nova. This was a very popular car in the US, yet it would not sell in the Latin American market for the simple reason that “no va” in Spanish translates as “it doesn’t go”! Cultural context includes elements as simple as linguistics, but understanding is definitely crucial.

Perhaps the other presenters may have some ideas in response to your point on overcoming cultural barriers to market infiltration, based on their practical experiences?

References

Carruthers, B. G. & Babb, S. L. (2000) Economy/society: markets, meanings, and social structure. California: Thousand Oaks.

Fligstein, N. (1996) Markets as Politics: A Political-Cultural Approach to Market Institutions. In American Sociological Review, 61, 656-673.
Hi Haitham, 'market-driven approaches' is the term I've used to =20
describe projects or programmes that focus on developing the supply =20
side of renewable energy technologies (RETs), rather than only working =20
directly with end-users (though it may be in combination - for example =20
it could include a microfinance service that is available to both =20
suppliers and consumers). Such approaches can engage with local =20
markets in different ways, but generally support local businesses or =20
entrepreneurs that are in or want to enter the market system in some =20
capacity. An example is UNEP's Rural Energy Enterprise Development =20
(REED) initiative (e.g. www.areed.org). I've spoken with NGOs that use =20
'market-driven approach' in the same way, but I don't know how widely =20
the term is used.

Nguelo, many thanks for your comment. In response to your question, I =20
first decided on the two different regions in order to have an =20
interesting comparison. In then deciding the specific countries I =20
narrowed it down to countries where English or French is reasonably =20
widely spoken for pragmatic reasons. Malawi, Senegal and Mali all host =20
particular projects that I'm interested in, though if for some reason =20
I cannot focus on these after all I will look for other options. As a =20
student at the University of Edinburgh, Malawi also has the attraction =20
of having strong historic links with Scotland, including the Scotland =20
Malawi Partnership (www.scotland-malawipartnership.org).

Quoting hedon at hedon.info:

>
> Dear Gillian,
>
> Thank you very much for the presentation!
> I would also like to know the criteria that you used to select =20
> Malawi and Senegal/Mali?
> Which information has guided to make the choice or it is a constraint ?
>
> --
> HEDON PISCES E-conference - PISCES Market Mapping E-confernce
> Unsubscribe www.hedon.info/Groups | Visit the forum online =20
> http://www.hedon.info/forum17
>
>
>



--=20
The University of Edinburgh is a charitable body, registered in
Scotland, with registration number SC005336.



Dear Elizabeth,

That is a very interesting point as women are often the ones who collect
fire wood and carry out the chores in many developing countries, did either
Ewan or Gillian find any examples where addressing gender differences and
roles would impact PMM?

Best wishes
Miriam



On Mon, Mar 21, 2011 at 4:39 PM, <hedon@hedon.info> wrote:

>
> A Message from Elizabeth Cecelski
> I have been through the presentations posted to date. I like the use of
> the different media. (Though the figure in first presentation is not
> legible even when enlarged.)
>
> One question that arises immediately for me, being from ENERGIA, is how to
> integrate a gender perspective in PMM? It would seem easy but so far I
> haven't seen any attempt at gender differentiation. Yotam Ariel did give
> some good examples of benefits with women as well as men, but in the video
> all the speakers, technicians etc are men.
>
> I have just come back from Dakar helping PERACOD (GoS-GIZ project building
> sustainable markets in SHS and improved stoves) to develop a Gender Action
> Plan. One of the actions included in the GAP is to use
> gender-differentiated approaches in promotion, product design and finance.
> Gender-specific targets for training, enterprises and revenues, and
> consumer benefits are also included.
>
> These approaches would seem applicable to PMM too.
>
> best,
>
> Elizabeth Cecelski
> Technical Adviser
> ENERGIA International Network on Gender & Sustainable Energy
> www.energia.org
>
> --
> HEDON PISCES E-conference - PISCES Market Mapping E-confernce
> Unsubscribe www.hedon.info/Groups | Visit the forum online
> http://www.hedon.info/forum17
>
>


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Hi Haitham, 'market-driven approaches' is the term I've used to describe projects or programmes that focus on developing the supply side of renewable energy technologies (RETs), rather than only working directly with end-users (though it may be in combination - for example it could include a microfinance service that is available to both suppliers and consumers). Such approaches can engage with local markets in different ways, but generally support local businesses or entrepreneurs that are in or want to enter the market system in some capacity. An example is UNEP's Rural Energy Enterprise Development (REED) initiative (e.g. www.areed.org). I've spoken with NGOs that use 'market-driven approach' in the same way, but I don't know how widely the term is used.

Nguelo, many thanks for your comment. In response to your question, I first decided on the two different regions in order to have an interesting comparison. In then deciding the specific countries I narrowed it down to countries where English or French is reasonably widely spoken for pragmatic reasons. Malawi, Senegal and Mali all host particular projects that I'm interested in, though if for some reason I cannot focus on these after all I will look for other options. As a student at the University of Edinburgh, Malawi also has the attraction of having strong historic links with Scotland, including the Scotland Malawi Partnership (www.scotland-malawipartnership.org).

Gill Davies
Hi all,

The Ashden Awards have documented some really good case studies of market driven approaches to delivering RETs - check out the 2010 winner Rural Energy Foundation (REF) working in SSA (http://www.ashdenawards.org/winners/REF10). By supporting local entrepreneurs, retailers associated with the NGO have sold 57,000 solar home systems and 36,000 solar lanterns in nine countries.

It would be really interesting to analyse this and other similar approaches using the PMM tool to identify barriers to increased uptake (policies, access to finance, knowledge and skills, etc.) and strategies that project designers can adopt to address the barriers.

Practical Action recently published the Poor People's Energy Outlook report (www.practicalaction.org/ppeo2010) that introduces the idea of an energy access 'ecosystem' - a term that describes the full range of actors operating in the market and the environment and services that enable their activities. We recognise that key actors include government, international agencies, enterprises, universities, NGOs, community groups, financiers and more have responsibilities, and that the ecosystem needs to expand significantly in order to increase energy access.

Best,

Dear Drew,

Thank you for the useful input.

Rural Energy Foundation (REF) is very interesting,
and recently it has created a commercial company (SolarNow) to take over its
core activities (http://www.solarnow.eu/index.php)

While REF/SolarNow is one of the more successful solar supporters,
starting as a non-profit and later establishing a commercial company
has worked for others.

For example:
Kamworks (Cambodia, Asia)
http://www.kamworks.com/

And:
SCODE (Kenya, Africa)
http://www.scodekenya.org/

It is not very obvious from their website introduction,
but this is my understanding from interviews with them
and researching their past development.


Indeed REF work is very inspiring,
and thank you for sharing Practical Action's comprehensive report.

Best,
Yotam
Again I am not sure how to post or whether this will do it?

Thank you Yotam for posting these - I was going to add some of these
later, that do show that women as well as men can be solar
technicians, even illiterate women. There are a number of nice short
videos of the Barefoot approach to solar in India
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XYvQmi0F9LA&feature=related

and in Sierra Leone
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v_RT8pngx1A

as well as videos of Barefoot approach from Mali, Gambia, Ethiopia...

However Barefoot is not a market approach; while Solar Sisters
focusses specifically on women. So I think it is interesting to think
about how to integrate gender perspective into market approach like
PMM in standard solar projects.

There are quite a few donor- and government-supported projects like
PERACOD l think that are trying to build sustainable markets and they
are making choices in the identification and support of entrepreneurs,
and on the consumer side, that affect women's participation and access.

For example in our work with the Botswana Power Corporation, the BPC
found out that the rate of grid connection of male-headed households
was twice the rate of female-headed households. This may be largely a
result of income level; but since 52% of all households in Botswana
are female-headed, this is a big market segment that BPC is now
concerned about how to reach.

And organizations like E&Co are starting to be concerned that most of
the energy entrepreneurs who they work with in private sector are men
and are looking for ways to address this.

So including some strategies for working with women as well as men,
and monitoring women's and men's participation and access, in a
methodology like PMM could be helpful.

BTW I enjoyed your presentation style, as well as content, very much!

best,
Elizabeth


On Mar 21, 2011, at 11:32 PM, hedon at hedon.info wrote:

>
> Dear Elizabeth,
>
> Thank you for highlighting the aspect of gender,
> and for sharing your activities in Dakar.
>
> I know women play a central role in:
>
> Barefoot College
> http://www.barefootcollege.org/sol_approach.asp
>
> And:
>
> Solar Sister
> http://www.solarsister.org/
>
> I look forward to include more on this aspect from now on,
> and learn from Energia experience.
>
> Thanks again,
>
> Yotam Ariel
>
> solar energy consultant
> www.bennu-solar.com/resources
>
> —
> HEDON PISCES E-conference - PISCES Market Mapping E-confernce
> Unsubscribe www.hedon.info/Groups | Visit the forum online http://www.hedon.info/forum17
>
 
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