Delivery models for decentralised rural electrification: Case studies in Nepal, Peru

Annabel Yadoo

Access to affordable, reliable and clean energy is fundamental for poverty reduction and sustainable development. This report analyses the impact of energy delivery models on the creation of sustainable welfare benefits. Three case studies are selected, comprising one renewable energy mini-grid project or programme from Nepal, Peru and Kenya. Although rural electrification poses a great challenge to all three countries their different physical, institutional, economic and socio-cultural contexts have led to different approaches to rural electrification. The report presents core recommendations for the benefit of practitioners and institutions involved in the provision and implementation of rural electrification projects in developing countries.
The report can be downloaded free at

Other titles in the series are listed below. All titles are available in print - please let us know if you’d like a hard copy.

Key issues in Uganda’s energy sector

Robert Tumwesigye, Paul Twebaze, Nathan Makuregye, Ellady Muyambe

Uganda has abundant energy resources, especially renewable resources, yet there is widespread energy poverty throughout the country. The country’s energy sector faces considerable challenges including high costs for renewable energy technologies, rising international oil prices and an increased demand for power. The report explores key issues in each of the sub-sectors, the potential for renewable energies, and gives an overview of the legal and institutional frameworks for the sector. Download free at

Remote access: Expanding energy provision in rural Argentina through public-private partnerships and renewable energy. A case study of the PERMER programme

Sara Best

The Argentine’s government’s PERMER (Project for Renewable Energy in Rural Markets) programme provides electricity for basic lighting, services and communication in remote, rural areas beyond the reach of the grid. This report analyses the delivery model adopted by PERMER for reaching isolated or dispersed rural customers; the state of implementation of the programme to date; and the social impacts on users.
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How to scrutinise a Production Sharing Agreement

Ingilab Ahmadov, Anton Artemyev, Kenan Aslanly, Ibragim Rzaev, Ilkham Shaban

This guide discusses the provisions of a particular type of oil and gas contract, the Production Sharing Agreement (PSA). While the guide is aimed at a general civil society readership, it draws particularly on experience from Kazakhstan. Its purpose is to give an accessible account of some key characteristics of PSAs, with a focus on revenue issues; and to suggest action points for civil society organisations involved with monitoring extractive industries. Now available in English, the guide was originally published in Russian by the Soros Foundation – Kazakhstan.

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Also, take a look at our latest briefings, including on the UN Sustainable Energy for All initiative, Sustainable Energy for All and the private sector, and on EITI and principles of good governance in the oil and gas sector.

Laura Jenks
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International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED)
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