Table 1: Urban consumption of biomass in Morocco
|Steam baths (hammams)||430 000||33.7|
|Public bakery ovens (ferranes)||406 000||31.8|
|Steam pressing shops/dry cleaners||32 000||2.5|
|Other establishments||25 000||2.0|
|Total urban establishments||1 274 000||100|
The first aim is to find out how much biomass is really consumed by the different sectors and biomass users. Evaluation starts using a model which takes into consideration all existing uses, with their specific consumption rates, their share of the market during a defined period, where they are found, etc.
The first results, obtained in 1997, will have been analysed in detail by the end of 1998, but it is already evident that the consumption rate for small enterprises will continue to increase, the hammams on their own being responsible for almost one half of the total consumption. It is predicted that the percentage of forest fuel-wood consumed by cities will increase by 11% to 15% over its current level by the year 2010 in the commercial sector.
It is foreseeable, that all these emissions will increase by 2010 (mainly due to population growth), but it can been shown that by using the improved combustion technologies proposed by the project (for hammams, public bakeries and potteries) or by substitution of fuelwood by gas, it would be possible to keep the emissions much lower.
Following this initiative, a second model, a 'cylindrical' boiler was developed with an even higher average efficiency of 78%. The boiler has a hot water capacity of 9m3, but may be adapted to any hammam size. It has a filter to reduce lime-scale and is easy to maintain. It costs of about 8400 DM and pays for itself after 4 months. The cylindrical model has already been accepted both by hammam owners and by national institutions and is constructed and used in both Marrakech and Casablanca. Each improved boiler saves more than 60% of the energy used by the traditional system, thus saving about 150 tonnes of fuelwood or at least 10 hectares of forest each year.
The project is trying to raise awareness for the improved technologies developed among decision-makers and hammam owners. It is also involved in training boiler manufacturers and plumbers. The Special Energy Project-Morocco assists in implementation, evaluation and monitoring of all measures taken.
For urban potters, who generally produce enamelled ceramics, a cheaper option is to use propane gas. Several simple models have already been tested. However, according to observations from GTZ-projects in Tamgroute, Ifrane Ali, Sfalat, etc. potters do not appreciate these models.
In the Tetouan region, the construction of thirty insulated, propane gas kilns is being financed by the Direction of Handicrafts, the Japanese Cooperation (JICA) and support from a private company. These kilns have been supplied free of charge to the project; the gas is being subsidized for two years through a contract with a private company.
In 1992, the Canadian International Development Organization (CIDA), together with the Ministry for Handicrafts, developed gas-powered pottery kilns, which seem very appropriate for potters living close to the cities. These models can be used throughout the year and cut emissions substantially as well as improving product quality. A Canadian company in Casablanca sells these products commercially for about 29 000 DM for the 1.5m3 model or 55000 DM for the 4m3 model. Thanks to a Canadian Fund, the Ministry for Handicrafts is providing a subsidy of 40% for these pottery kilns. The buyer is responsible for the 60% of the total cost. Of this, 5% comes from his or her own funds and 55% is borrowed from a bank. By May 1998, 43 of these kilns had been installed. Even if one assumes that the kiln will only be used by a single potter, and one does not take into account the reduction in manpower necessary, the kiln will pay itself after 20 months through fuelwood economies. A kiln with a 4m3 volume (Figure 4) could even be used jointly by about 10 potters.
Recently, potters started using 10 new pottery kilns imported from Italy. These kilns use gas or electricity and are relatively expensive (about 58 000 DM), but their users praise their good heat insulation and the quantities that can be put into them.
The CDER-PSE Morocco have written a technical report on the different types of kilns used on their various operation sites. In collaboration with the Ministry of Handicrafts, the project organized meetings and visits on the sites in order to encourage potters to use the improved technologies. The CDER/SEP is an active member in the 'pottery committee' which has recently been created within the Province of Marrakech. This committee gives advice to potters, their representatives and the related authorities. At present, the idea of buying a gas pottery kiln for several potters is being examined. Recently, a law was passed in the province of Marrakech forbidding the combustion of any plastic material or tyres in pottery kilns.
Some high-volume bakery ovens (in public or private bakeries) and steam-pressing shops already use gas and liquid fuel, and these technologies are gradually becoming better known all over the country. The CDER/SEP is striving to increase the information available on improved technologies and their cost-effectiveness, and will, in the near future, take an initiative in the field of bread-baking ovens.